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Differences in understanding social behaviour and the feelings of others, which affects the development of friendships and relationships.
Most autistic young people find social interaction with adults and peers difficult and tiring. Autistic young people are not easily able to understand commonly used implicit social messages and may find it hard to understand or relate to how social rules change due to context, or what is considered socially ‘appropriate’ (i.e. what is appropriate to say and do in some situations is inappropriate in other situations). It is hard for young people on the autism spectrum to easily and quickly read and understand the emotional intentions of staff and peers, but it should also be remembered that this can be a ‘two-way’ difficulty. The actions of children and young people on the autism spectrum are often misinterpreted as intentionally insensitive or defiant. Children and young people on the autism spectrum may need help to develop the skills which will support them to understand, manage and/or make friendships and relationships.
Differences in perceiving sensory information. Hypo (low sensitivity), hyper (high sensitivity), touch, sight, hearing, smell, taste, vestibular inner ear (balance), proprioceptive (body awareness)
Many autistic young people may have levels of sensory perception that are atypical/outside the typical range. This can mean that they may be hypo or hyper sensitive to particular sensory stimuli such as sights, sounds and smells. They may also be overwhelmed as they have problems in separating out sensory information and attending to the most relevant. This can cause high levels of anxiety and staff can do a great deal to reduce this by finding out what each child and young person finds hard and creating a classroom and school environment which addresses these difficulties.
Differences in perception, planning, understanding concepts, generalising, predicting, managing transitions, passions for interests and ability to absorb auditory or spoken information.
Autistic young people find change much more difficult than other young people as they are not easily able to predict what will happen instead or what to do in the changed situation. Some children and young people with autism develop special interests in a topic or activity which may occupy a great deal of their thought and time. Such interests can be used to very good effect as part of the learning process and can be broadened into related areas and act as a route into employment. Autistic young people have an uneven profile of abilities, which can also coincide with other factors such as age, personality, or the existence of other developmental differences or impairments. It is therefore of paramount importance to assess each young person to gain an overall profile of their strengths and needs.
Differences in understanding and expressing communication and language, with skills ranging from individuals who are highly articulate, to others who may be non–verbal. Good language skills may mask a deep level of misunderstanding.
Autistic young people at all levels of intellectual ability have difficulties in understanding the communication and language of adults and peers and in communicating effectively themselves. About 40% of children with autism are delayed in learning to speak and some people develop little or no speech. It is likely that most children and young people with autism will need support and strategies to help teach them how to communicate with staff and peers in order to have their needs met. This can involve the use of alternative means of communication (e.g. objects of reference, visual symbols, photos, gestures, spoken word, or a combination of means). It should be remembered that an approach to communication for young people should be consistent across the school day.